Four injustices (cattāssoagati)

Please show me what are the Four injustices (cattāssoagati)? Thank you

the code of disciple for layman

In which four ways does one commit evil deed?

Led by desire to injustice does one commit evil.
Led by anger to injustice does one commit evil.
Led by ignorance to injustice does one commit evil.
Led by fear to injustice does one commit evil.

Since an Aryan disciple is not led to injustice by desire, anger, ignorance, and fear, he commits no evil in these four ways.

with metta

Nguyen Quy Hoang's picture

Four injustices

Thank you so much Hui Chang, I got it now.

A lot of concepts to be understood and distinguished such as Ten fetters (dasasaṃyojanāni), ten corruptions (dasakilesā),Ten wrongnesses (dasamichattā), Four perversions (cattāravipallāsā), Four cankers (cattāroganthā) , Four cattāroāsavā,Four floods (cattāroogha),Five hindrances (Pañca nīvaranāṇi), One adherence (Parāmāso), Four clinging (cattāriupādāna), Seven inherent tendencies (sattānusayā), Three stains (tinimalani),Ten unwholesome courses of action (dasa akusalakammapathā), Twelve unwholesome thought arisings (dvādasākusalacittuppādā).

Can you make clear about One adherence (Parāmāso)? is this the attachment to wrong view, not truth?

With metta, Hoang

The kinds of states that ought to be abandoned

Dear Hoang,

I found a list of defilements with description here:
Path of Purification: Page 770. Chapter 22 Purification by knowledge and vision.

4. The kinds of states that ought to be abandoned, 5. also the act of their abandoning:

58. Adherence (misapprehension—parámása) is a term for wrong view, because it
occurs in the aspect of missing the individual essence of a given state (dhamma)
and apprehending (ámasana) elsewhere (parato) an unactual individual essence.

2)Some of the categories were also mentioned in this reference book: Bhikkhu Bodhi, 1995, 1999 (second edition), A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma (The Abhidhammatthasangaha
chapter 7 Compendium of Categories.

thanks and with metta,

parāmāsa / sīlabbata-parāmāsa

Yes, Hui Chang, I think you are on the right track.

Ven. Nyanatiloka’s Buddhist Dictionary states the following:

parāmāsa: 'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension', is according to Visuddhimagga XXII a name for wrong views; in that sense it occurs in Dhammasaṅgaṇi 1174 ff. - See sīlabbata-parāmāsa.

sīlabbata-parāmāsa and -upādāna: 'attachment (or clinging) to mere rules and ritual', is the 3rd of the 10 fetters (saṃyojana), and one of the 4 kinds of clinging (upādāna). It disappears on attaining to Stream-entry (Sotāpatti).

Ven. Nyanatiloka’s “Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines” is a very helpful source for Pāli terms. Here you can find it as a free ebook (if you are not using it already):


Nguyen Quy Hoang's picture

parāmāsa / Sīlabbata-parāmāsa

Thank you very much Seven. I got the book Manual of Buddhist terms and doctrines and will use it more.

With metta, Hoang

Nguyen Quy Hoang's picture

The kinds of states that ought to be abandoned

Thank you very much Hui Chang, you are pro in Buddhist studies, it seems to me that you know everything, look like a Buddhist encyclopedia.

With metta, hoang