Buddhism and War

The decline of Buddhism in India occurred for a variety of reasons such as sectarian conflicts within Buddhism, change in socio-political developments and a loss in public/royal support for Buddhism (Doniger, 1999). The key reason however can be attributed to the invasions of India from central Asia. The invasion by Muslim Turks and Persians destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and its institutional structure (Harvey, 2013), thereby ending Buddhism in India by the end of the 19th century (Johnston, 2000).

History seems to be repeating itself now in Southern Thailand. Thailand's national census has shown that the number of Buddhists in the area had been gradually declining over the last two decades. For example, the Buddhist population in Narathiwat in 1990 was 20.5 per cent, 17.9 per cent in 2000, and 14 per cent in 2010. In Yala, it was 35.9 per cent in 1990, 31 per cent in 2000, and 23.3 per cent in 2010. In Pattani, it was 21.4 per cent in 1990, 19.2 per cent in 2000, and 15.5 per cent in 2010. The main reason being the struggle for independence by Malay nationalists against the Thai state which had resulted in the separatists directing their attacks on Buddhist monks and teachers (Wongcha-um, 2017).
In order to prevent the recurrence of Indian Buddhism (i.e. extinction by violent insurgent), some Buddhist monks in Thailand is advocating violent and started to take arms (Jerryson, 2017). To some extent, this trend is also happening in Sri Lanka (Patel, 2018) and Mynamar (Ratcliffe, 2017).

Non-violence however is at the heart of Buddhist thinking and behaviour. The first of the five precepts that all Buddhists should follow is "Avoid killing, or harming any living thing”. Many Buddhists have refused to take up arms under any circumstances, even knowing that they would be killed as a result. The Buddhist code that governs the life of monks permits them to defend themselves, but it forbids them to kill, even in self-defence (BBC, 2009).

The Dharma clearly states that violent actions and thoughts, actions which harm and debase others and thoughts which contemplate the same, stand in the way of spiritual growth and the self-conquest which leads to the goal of existence and they are normally deemed unskilled (akusala) and cannot lead to the goal of Nirvana. Buddha condemned killing or harming living beings and encouraged reflection or mindfulness (satipatthana) as right action (or conduct), therefore "the rightness or wrongness of an action centers on whether the action itself would bring about harm to self and/or others". The right action or right conduct (samyak-karmānta / sammā-kammanta) is the fourth aspect of the Noble Eightfold Path and it said that the practitioner should train oneself to be morally upright in one's activities, not acting in ways that would be corrupt or bring harm to oneself or to others. As the mind filled with lobha, dosa and moha (lust, hatred and delusion) is led to actions which are akusala. Indulging in violence is a form of self-harming. Thus rejection of violence in society is recognized in Buddhism as a prerequisite for the spiritual progress of society's members, because violence brings pain to beings with similar feelings to oneself (Kalupahana, 1992; Brannigan, 2010; Harris, 1994).

For Buddhist countries this poses the difficult dilemma of how to protect the rights and lives of their citizens without breaking the principle of nonviolence (BBC, 2009). For example, should a police take down a shooter who is going around a shopping centre killing people at random? It will be hypocritical for a monk to say that he will not kill but expect the police to take down the aggressor quickly so that innocent lives are saved.

In the 2500 years of Buddhism history, differences in the practice and interpretations of precepts have given rise to different Buddhism schools and sects. The precepts are practiced differently due to environment, culture and era. We therefore see the Mahayana emphasising more on vegetarianism and the Theravada focusing on less consumption (no meal after noon) when it comes the execution of compassionate (no killing) precept because of the different climate conditions each is facing (ReligiousFacts.com, 2016).

Buddhism, like the other great faiths, has not always lived up to its principles - there are however numerous examples of Buddhists engaging in violence and even war in order to protect and save Buddhism (BBC, 2009). For example:

(1) In the 14th century Buddhist fighters led the uprising that evicted the Mongols from China

(2) In Japan, Buddhist monks trained Samurai warriors in meditation that made them better fighters

(3) In the 20th century Japanese Zen masters wrote in support of Japan's wars of aggression - It is just to punish those who disturb the public order. Whether one kills or does not kill, the precept forbidding killing [is preserved]. It is the precept forbidding killing that wields the sword
(BBC, 2009)

Results have shown that Buddhist countries that insist on not breaking the principle of nonviolence is now no longer a Buddhist country e.g. India, Middle Asia, Indonesia. Buddhist countries that are still around have shown some form of actions to protect the rights, lives and faith of their citizen e.g. China, Myanmar, Bhutan and Thailand.

Of course, the pure Buddhist attitude remains “If there is any truth to Buddhism and the Dharma it will not disappear from the face of the earth, but will reappear when seekers of truth are ready to rediscover it. In killing I would be betraying and abandoning the very teachings I would be seeking to preserve. So it would be better to let the invaders kill me and remain true to the spirit of the Dharma” (BBC, 2009). Not sure how this will work out when American police face off with shooter going round a school killing everyone in sight.

What is your view on this issue?


BBC, Reigions – War Web 3 Dec 2018 http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/buddhism/buddhistethics/war.shtml (2009)

Brannigan, M.C., Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, U.S.A. (2010)

Champa, P., Sri Lanka stands at crossroads amid fears Buddhist-Muslim tensions will erupt in widespread violence Web 3 Dec 2018 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/sri-lanka-violence-state-of... (2018)

Doniger, W., Merriam-Webster's Encyclopaedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster, Massachusetts (1999)

Harris, E.J., Violence and Disruption in Society A Study of early Buddhist Texts, Web 3 Dec 2018 https://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/harris/wheel392.html (1994)

Harvey, P., An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press, New York (2013)

Jerryson, M., Monks with guns Web 3 Dec 2018 https://aeon.co/essays/buddhism-can-be-as-violent-as-any-other-religion (2017)

Johnston, W.M., Encyclopaedia of Monasticism: A-L. Routledge, Michigan (2000)

Kalupahana, D.J., A History of Buddhist Philosophy: Continuities and Discontinuities, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu (1992)

Ratcliffe, R., Who are the Rohingya and what is happening in Myanmar? Web 3 Dec 2018 https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/sep/06/who-are-the-r... (2017)

ReligiousFacts.com, Buddhist Sects and Schools Web 3 Dec 2018 http://www.religionfacts.com/buddhism/branches (2016)

Wongcha-um, P., In conflict-hit southern Thailand, Buddhist nationalism is on the rise, Web 3 Dec 2018 https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/in-conflict-hit-souther... (2017)

Alejandro Cardeinte's picture

What was the motivation of the Muslim Turks at that time?

It is mentioned in the essay that the key reason of the declension of Buddhism in India is the invasion by Muslim Turks and Persians that destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and institutional structures. I am wondering what was the motivation of the Muslim Turks at that time? Any idea?


I am no expert but Muslims coveted the riches of India.
I learnt that a theological justification was to smash idols that had -in the lore- been brought to India as prophet Mohamed evicted pagans from Mecca.
Theology in itself was a justification behind many Empires.
The 1863 British T.J. Barker painting The Secret Of England's Greatness shows Queen Victoria as she hands a Bible to an exotic, awestruck foreign prince in a colorful attire as he bows down to her. Because he's very dark-skinned, this foreign dignitary might as well be either an Indian and/or an African nobleman as Britain begun scrambling for Africa on one hand, and 'pacified' India on the other. Here again, “The Secret Of England's Greatness” is supposed to rest entirely upon one book: the bible.
A new religion can also act as social equalizer.

During the times of the struggle for, and path after Indian independence, the collective grievances of the untouchables were apparently so ignored that leader Ambedkar -and a mass of followers- converted to Buddhism in 1956 in order to escape the caste system.
So momentous is this conversion that at Nagpur (India) an international Tripitaka Buddhist canon recitation takes place to celebrate Dr. Ambedkar on a national holiday (Ambedkar Jayanti since 2015).

Earlier on, the same had likely happened with Islam (=conversion in order to escape the caste system). In the Civil Rights era in the U.S, a growing number of Afro-Americans fabricated a “restored” Muslim identity for themselves: basket superstar Ferdinand Lewis Alcindor, Jr. became Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, for example. People had equally converted en masse to Catholicism in the Portuguese colonies in India (about 1/3 of Goa's population is still Catholic): a conversion that allowed to escape the caste system. In China under the Eastern Jin State (317-420 CE), commoners joined the growing Buddhist monastic community in order to avoid forced labor and harsh taxation in a war-torn State.

In the Belle Epoque China torn between the clutches of foreign imperialism, inadequate or sabotaged Imperial reforms and underdevelopment, many Chinese found convenient to convert to Christianity in order to both court favors from influential foreigners, and to escape from traditional hierarchy and collective responsibilities.


Alejandro Cardeinte's picture

Enrtered by trading and invasion

It is so interesting to learn how the Muslims begun in India. The article I've read mentioned that by traders and on the other side (North India) by invasion. Here's the some of the articles I've just read.
The religion first arrived at the western coast of India when Arab traders as early as the 7th century CE came to coastal Malabar and Konkan-Gujarat. Cheraman Juma Mosque in Kerala is thought to be the first mosque in India, built in 629 CE by Malik Deenar. Following an expedition by the governor of Bahrain to Bharuch in the 7th century CE, immigrant Arab and Persian trading communities from South Arabia and the Persian Gulf began settling in coastal Gujarat.[15] Ismaili Shia Islam was introduced to Gujarat in the second half of the 11th century, when Fatimid Imam Al-Mustansir Billah sent missionaries to Gujarat in 467 AH/1073 CE.
Islam arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Turkic invasions and has since become a part of India's religious and cultural heritage, with the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, and Deccan Sultanates having ruled large parts of India. Over the centuries, there has been significant integration of Hindu and Muslim cultures across India and Muslims have played a notable role in economics, politics, and culture of India.

Pei Wan's picture

Buddhism and War

War has caused the Buddhism to break into more divisions but the main concept is remained as the teaching of Buddha. It is crucial for one to be born in the place with teaching available besides having sufficient resources for the living. In my opinion, those who born in the war area and yet willing to practice for Dharma are those who wanted to attain enlightment. It is difficult for the monks and practitioners to practice the precepts during the war while maintaining their living. Thus, some of the leaders will have to protect these practitioners during these difficult time.

Wong Fook Ming's picture

No need War to protect Buddhism

Buddhism is an identity in traditional Buddhist countries. Thus, when that community was threatened, Buddhism is used as unifying factor by that community. However, it doesn't make sense that such a peaceful spiritual tradition advocates war.

The way to protect Buddhism is to taste the spiritual experiences of this tradition and focus more on the lay population spiritual Buddhism needs. Spiritual Buddhism emphasis on the meditation, contemplation, compassion and dana (social works of giving and sharing).

Buddhism declines when such works stopped and the masses are not connected.

Alejandro Cardeinte's picture

I agree Sir Wong Fook Ming

I fully agree on what you said Sir Wong Fook Ming. It is very sad and irony for us whose doctrine emphasis compassion but advocate violence.

Wong Fook Ming's picture

Lets Do Something

We hope that all of us can do something, even a small actions to share this spiritual tradition and contribute something back to our society, or even to our close neighbors and relatives. Because most of us forgot to share this beautiful teachings and paths. The motivation in this spiritual sharing is not for the purpose of power or conquering, but for the welfare to alleviate suffering and metta (unconditional loving kindness) so that others may have the way that leads to liberation.

No more war if all leaders of countries love peace and humanity

War usually occurs when the leader of a country starts imperialism either for territorial gains, fame or economic factors. For example during the Second World War, Hitler wanted to bring glory back to Germany afer being defeated in the 1st World War. Due to the 2nd World War, there was vast devastation to countries and mankind. Actully , if leaders of all countries love peace and humanity regardless of whatever religion the leader is, war can be prevented.
If we look from the Buddhist perspective, usually war starts because the leaders of the countries concerned are under the influence of greed , hatred and delusion. Due to egoism, to get fame , position and wealth, conflicts occur, thus leading to warfare at the expanse of the people suffering from the effects of war.